What is Anosmia?
Anosmia is the loss of smell. This can be partial or complete, although a complete loss of smell is fairly rare. Loss of smell can also be temporary or permanent, depending on the cause.
What causes Anosmia?
The common cold is a frequent cause for a partial, temporary loss of smell. Chronic sinus infection also may result in a loss of smell. Other obstructions in the nasal passages, such as polyps, also may cause at least a partial loss of smell. Normal aging is often the cause of a progressive, complete, and permanent loss of smell.
Anosmia can be caused by temporary or permanent irritation, or destruction of the mucous membranes lining the inside of your nose.
This can be caused by:
- Acute sinusitis (sinus infection)
- Common cold
- Hay fever (allergic rhinitis)
- Influena (flu)
- Nonallergic rhinitis (chronic congestion or sneezing not related to allergies)
Grayson Blöm, B.Sc., DC published in the Journal of Upper Cervical Chiropractic Research his research on Resolution of Anosmia Following Upper Cervical Specific Chiropractic Care
Clinical Features: A 64 year old women with a history of head and neck trauma and the subsequent loss of smell and taste. Intervention and Outcomes: The patient received upper cervical spinal correction following protocol. There was improvement of symptoms within 48 hours of the first upper cervical correction with complete restoration of smell and taste within 3 months.
Conclusions: This case study suggests that there may be a role for the use of precise upper cervical chiropractic care in the management of patients with smell and taste disorders in patients with a history of head and neck trauma. Controlled studies are necessary to further our understanding of these findings.
What is Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia?
Glossopharyngeal neuralgia is a condition in which there are repeated episodes of severe pain in the tongue, throat, ear, and tonsils, which can last from a few seconds to a few minutes. The pain occurs in episodes and is usually on one side and it feels like a jabbing.
What causes Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia?
It’s believed to be caused by irritation of the ninth cranial nerve, called the glossopharyngeal nerve. Symptoms usually begin to show in people over 40. There are several ways to irritate a nerve including; blood vessels pressing on the nerve, growths at the base of the skull pressing on the nerve and a tumor or infection of the throat and mouth putting pressure on the nerve.
Chewing, coughing, laughing and speaking
Back of the nose and throat
Back of the tongue
Michael Burcon B.Ph, DC and Jennifer Pero DCResolution did a case study of Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia Following Upper Cervical Specific Chiropractic and published their findings in the Journal of Upper Cervical Chiropractic Research
Clinical Features: An 82 year old female presented with right-sided Glossopharyngeal neuralgia of ten years duration. Pain was helped by medication and exacerbated by talking, swallowing, coughing, quick head movements and air conditioning.
Patient had a case history of a prior head injury. Patient had constant stabbing pain with tremor in right temple, face, tongue and throat. She could only manage to whisper a few words at a time. Posture analysis, leg length equality, thermography, and cervical x-rays supported evidence of vertebral subluxation.
Intervention and Outcomes: Immediately after specific adjustments, pain diminished from 10 to 1. Tremor was eliminated. Head tilt, eye clarity and facial color returned to normal. She could talk normally. Two days later pain was zero. Under her neurologist’s supervision, she started reducing her Gabapentin. Six weeks later, patient presented with straight thermograph, balanced legs, and was pain-free without medication.
Conclusions: This case demonstrates the effectiveness of upper cervical specific care as an alternative to medication or surgery for the control of pain associated with Glossopharyngeal neuralgia.
What is an Ear Infection?
An ear infection (acute otitis media) is most often a bacterial or viral infection that affects the middle ear, the air-filled space behind the eardrum that contains the tiny vibrating bones of the ear. Children are more likely than adults to get ear infections. Ear infections frequently are painful because of inflammation and buildup of fluids in the middle ear.
What Causes an Ear Infection?
When swelling from an upper respiratory infection or allergy blocks the eustachian tube, air can’t reach the middle ear. This creates a vacuum and suction, which pulls fluid and germs from the nose and throat into the middle ear. The swollen tube prevents this fluid from draining. An ear infection begins when bacteria or viruses in the trapped fluid grow into an infection.
-Drainage from the ear that is thick and yellow or bloody. If this occurs, the eardrum has probably burst (ruptured). -The hole in the eardrum often heals by itself in a few weeks.
-Loss of appetite, vomiting and grumpy behavior
Pamela Stone-McCoy, B.S., D.C., CACCP, Alissa Boutilier, B.A., D.C., and Paige Black, D.C. did a research study of resolution of ear infection in a nine month old undergoing Chiropractic Care and published their findings in the Journal of Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health.
Clinical Features: A nine-month-old boy, with a history of recurring ear infections, was presented by his mother for chiropractic evaluation and possible care. The mother reported that antibiotic therapy was unsuccessful. Myringotomy and insertion of tympanostomy ventilating tubes were recommended by the patient’s ear nose and throat doctor (ENT).
Interventions and Outcomes: Care was initiated during an episode of otitis media. The patient was most commonly cared for using the Webster toggle headpiece and the Activator instrument. Cranial adjusting and sinus work was also utilized when necessary. Paraspinal thermal scans were performed to assess asymmetries due to vertebral subluxations. Both ears were reported clear within a week of initiating chiropractic adjustments and no ear infections have been reported since.
Conclusion: Chiropractic care in this case resulted in a reduction of the symptoms associated with otitis media and eliminated the need for myringotomy, tympanostomy tubes and antibiotics.
What is Attention Deficit Disorder?
Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a psychological term currently applied to anyone who meets the DSM IV diagnostic criteria for impulsive, hyperactivity and/or inattention. ADD is one of the three subtypes of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
What Causes ADD?
ADHA is one of the most common childhood psychiatric conditions, affecting 9.5% of school-aged children in the United States. Boys are about five times more likely to have ADD than girls. ADD isn’t caused by bad parenting or bad teachers, or anything a child has done. The exact origin of ADHD is unknown, but researchers think the disorder may be caused by one or more of the following factors; brain chemistry, genetics and/or environment.
-Difficulty paying attention to details
-Easily distracted by irrelevant stimuli
-Inability to sustain attention on tasks or activities
-Difficulty finishing or performing tasks that require concentration
-Frequent shifts from one uncompleted activity to another
-Disorganized work habits
-Forgetfulness in daily activities
Antoinette Young DC did a case study on Chiropractic Management of a Child with ADD and published her findings in the Journal of Vertebral Subluxation Research.
Objective: To present features of a case of a 4-year-old boy who had been diagnosed as suffering from ADHD, displayed other symptoms of developmental delay and presented for chiropractic treatment.
Clinical Features: The child suffered from speech delay, frequent temper tantrums, was easily distracted, had poor short-term memory, was aggressive, suffered from dyspraxia, and had a tendency to be obsessive.
Intervention and Outcome: Treatment consisted of a combination of chiropractic adjustments, proprioceptive exercises, dietary changes and supplementation. Over the course of chiropractic care, all aspects of the child’s condition improved, most particularly his language skills, as reported by the mother, his teachers and his speech therapist.
What is Scoliosis?
A typical spine is a straight, vertical line; in comparison to a spine with scoliosis where the spine has a horizontal curvature. Approximately 2% of Americans at age 16 have scoliosis. Less than 0.1% have spinal curves measuring greater than 40 degrees, which is the point at which surgery becomes a consideration.
What Causes Scoliosis?
Overall, girls are more likely to be affected by Scoliosis than boys. Scoliosis can be caused by a couple of different factors, including birth defect of bones, muscles or nerves. Trauma, like a car accident may result in scoliosis. The most common type of scoliosis, idiopathic scoliosis, has no specific identifiable cause. There are many theories, but none have been found to be conclusive. There is, however, strong evidence that idiopathic scoliosis is inherited.
The curve int he spine causes stress and pressure on:
-spinal discs and facet joints
-muscles and ligaments
Jonathan Chung D.C. and Bryan Salminen D.C. did a case study on the reduction in Scoliosis in a 10 Year-Old Female Undergoing Upper Cervical Chiropractic Care and published their findings in the journal of Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health.
Clinical Features:A 10 year old female presented to a chiropractic practice with a chief complaint of scoliosis, a 35 degree curve in her lower back.
Intervention and Outcomes: Six upper cervical adjustments were delivered over a period of 11 visits and 25 weeks. A 10 degree reduction in scoliotic curve was found and confirmed by an independent medical radiologist.
Conclusion:The upper cervical subluxation may be a contributing factor to idiopathic scoliosis. Reduction of the subluxation with specific vectored correction may help reduce curvatures in the thoracic and lumbar spine. More research is warranted investigating the effects of upper cervical care and idiopathic scoliosis.
What is Asthma?
Asthma is a disease of diffuse airway inflammation caused by a variety of triggering stimuli. When you have an asthma attack, spasms of the muscles around the airways, inflammation and swelling of the airways, and excessive amounts of mucus contribute to airway narrowing. This makes airway resistance increase and the work of breathing more difficult, causing shortness of breath, cough, and wheezing.
What Causes Asthma?
No one really knows what causes asthma. The causes of asthma triggers and symptoms can vary for different people. It’s important to understand the many asthma triggers. Once you identify and reduce exposure to the specific triggers or causes of asthma, you can take an active role in controlling your asthma and reducing the frequency of asthma attacks.
-Coughing (especially at night)
-Shortness of breath
-Chest tightness, pain or pressure
Heather Davis, D.C. and Amy Byrley, D.C. did a case study on Correction of Subluxation and Alleviation of Asthma Symptoms in a Pediatric Patient and published their findings in the Journal of Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health - Chiropractic.
Clinical Features:A two-year-old male suffering from asthma, chronic colds, and respiratory issues since birth was presented by his mother for chiropractic evaluation and possible care. At the time of initial examination the patient was taking two medications, Flovent and Singulair, daily.
Interventions and Outcomes:The patient was cared for using specific, low-force adjustments with the Activator adjusting instrument to address areas of vertebral subluxation in the cervical, thoracic and lumbosacral spine. Within approximately two weeks (4 adjustments) the patient’s mother reported improvement in the boy’s condition.
Conclusion: This case report reviews the benefit a young boy suffering from asthma experienced while undergoing chiropractic care. It is recommended that further investigation be conducted on this subject with large clinical trials.
What is Depression?
Depressive disorders are characterized by sadness severe enough or persistent enough to interfere with function and sometimes by decreased interest or pleasure in activities. Exact cause is unknown but probably involves heredity, changes in neurotransmitter levels, altered neuroendocrine function, and psychosocial factors. Diagnosis is based on history.
What Causes Depression?
Depressive disorders occur at any age but typically develop during the mid-teens, 20s, or 30s. In primary care settings, as many as 30% of patients report depressive symptoms, but less than 10% have major depression.
-Feelings of sadness or unhappiness
-Irritability or frustration, even over small matters
-Loss of interest or pleasure in normal activities
-Reduced sex drive
-Insomnia or excessive sleeping, fatigue, tiredness and loss of energy
-Changes in appetite
-Slowed thinking, speaking or body movements
-Indecisiveness, easy to distract and decreased concentration
Upper Cervical Chiropractic Care as a Complementary Strategy for Depression
Lauren Roth PsyD, Diane Zelman PhD, Lauren Clum DC, Justin Roth DC
Journal of Upper Cervical Chiropractic Research
Clinical Features: This case study of 6 adults with mild to moderate depression symptoms based on pre-treatment and presence of upper cervical subluxation. Participants received upper cervical specific chiropractic care. Participants completed the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) pre- and post-treatment, and completed depression measures weekly throughout treatment. A numeric chiropractic care outcome measure tracked stability and effectiveness of weekly chiropractic visits. A post-treatment interview conducted by a psychology researcher evaluated subjective effectiveness and effects.
Intervention and Outcome: Five of six patients completed all 12 recommended chiropractic visits. Four of five study completers expressed satisfaction with the outcome and that they would recommend similar care to others with depression. Participants also reported decrease in muscle tension and pain and increase in mental clarity and physical energy.
Conclusion: The results provide tentative support for the effectiveness of upper cervical chiropractic care for depression symptoms. Follow-up research should use randomized controlled blind study.
The Merck Manual (eighteenth edition), www.mayoclinic.com, www.uppercervicalsubluxation.com
What is a Migraine?
A migraine headache can cause intense throbbing or a pulsing sensation in one area of the head and is commonly accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and extreme sensitivity to light and sound. Migraine symptoms can last for a couple of hours to days.
What Causes Migraines?
No one knows the exact reason for migraines. There are a couple know contributors including genetics and environmental factors. It is also thought that migraines may be caused by changes in the brainstem and its interactions with nerve. Migraines affect 18% women and 6% of men in the US. It is common for migraines to start during adolescence and will substance after the age of 50.
-Throbbing or a pulsing sensation of the head
-Extreme sensitivity to light and sound
Moses Bernard DC, Joel Alcantara DC, and G. Stanford Pierce DC publish a case study on how upper cervical chiropractic helps with migraines in the Journal of Upper Cervical Chiropractic Research.
Clinical Features: A 16-year-old female presented with a chief complaint of migraine since kindergarten. Magnetic resonance imaging, computer axial tomography scans of the cranium and a dental consultation were unremarkable. The frequency of migraine attacks occurred 1-2 times per week, lasting approximately 2-3 hours per episode.
Intervention and Outcome: The patient was cared for with the Upper Cervical Chiropractic adjustment to address atlas subluxation. The patient attended a total of 16 visits in a period of one year and received 5 corrections to the atlas. Ongoing care resulted in independence from the use of medications and abatement of migraine attacks to 2-4 per month of mild intensity.
Conclusion: The care of an adolescent with chronic migraines with Upper Cervical Chiropractic was presented. This case report provides supporting evidence that patients with migraines may benefit from this type of chiropractic care.
What is TMJ?
Temporomandibular Joints (TMJ) coordinates the movement of the jaw. The timing of the left and right side of the joint are synchronized by muscles and the trigeminal nerve. The trigeminal nerve also gives sensation and function to the rest of the face, including tongue, sinus, palate, eyes, teeth, and lips.
What Causes TMJ?
TMJ Dysfunction is most commonly caused by damage to the joint itself. Damage to the joint can be from direct trauma like a car accident or indirect trauma like clenching your teeth repeatedly. Another, not so commonly addressed link to TMJ Dysfunction is upper neck and nervous system trauma.
Clicking or popping of the joint
Pain with or without chewing
Locking of the jaw
Facial and or neck painHeadaches
Beth Forgosh, DC, Stéphane Provencher, DC and Charles L. Blum, DC did a case study on TMJ Dysfunction Affects the Sucking Reflex in a 2-Month-Old Female Infant.
Clinical features: A 2-month-old underweight female presented with nutritive sucking function since birth as reported by her mother. Complications developed when labor failed to progress. According to the mother the child was taken to the osteopath “to address underdevelopment of cranial structures/jaw.” The mother had a good experience with the osteopath, but her lactation consultant recommended she seek chiropractic care since the baby was not sucking strongly enough, was underweight, and she had to continue supplementing the infant’s feeding with formula.
Outcome and Interventions: Treatment was guided by visual assessment of asymmetry, palpation of increased muscle tension or asymmetry, regions of sensitivity involving muscle testing. Visual analysis of the patient revealed a head tilt, left sided flattening of the skull, orbital dimension (small left eye), and flattened left ear. The patient’s history of weak sucking directed investigation into valuations of TMJ related structures and their possible contribution to the patient’s symptoms.
Results: Within minutes following initial treatment, the child’s sucking strength improved significantly. Mom described the sucking as strong and direct for the first time ever. At the follow-up office visit, the mother reported that the baby no longer exhibited preference for right-side breast, and was nursing equally on both sides.
What is Parkinson’s Disease?
Parkinson’s Disease is considered a chronic and progressive disorder of the central nervous system and characterized by gradual loss of brain control over the body. In the United States, around 50,000 new cases of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) are diagnosed each year, adding to the one million people who currently have it.
What Causes Parkinson’s Disease?
Parkinson’s disease is caused by the progressive impairment or deterioration of neurons in the brain. This area of the brain is in charge of communication between the brain and coordinating muscle movement. When functioning normally, these neurons produce a vital brain chemical known as dopamine. A lack of dopamine results in abnormal nerve functioning, causing a loss in the ability to control body movements.
Tremor or trembling
Steve Landry TRP, DC did a case studt on Upper Cervical Chiropractic Management of a Patient with Parkinson’s Disease and published his findings in the Journal of Upper Cervical Chiropractic Research.
Clinical Features: A 63-year-old man was diagnosed with Idiopathic Parkinson’s disease after a twitch developed in his right hand at rest. Other findings included loss of energy, anxiety and localized middle back pain.
Intervention and Outcomes: Upper cervical care adjustments were used over a 4 week period using x-ray procedures, and analysis, skin temperature differential (pattern) analysis. Adjustments were delivered to the Atlas vertebra. The patient experienced significant improvements in his quality of life and subjective intake during upper cervical care. The patient also showed considerable improvements in the overall bodily pain, active and passive cervical range of motion, postural correction and better quality of sleep following the cessation of his restless leg syndrome.
Conclusions: We conclude that improvement of the Atlas alignment is associated with reduction of most of his Parkinson’s symptoms. Symptoms including decrease in frequency and intensity of his middle back pain, improvement in his quality of life and improvement in his motor functions.